Which personal style should managers adopt to ensure success? What is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates? These questions have been extensively researched and debated over the last century, and while the general consensus has moved away from ‘command and control’ to management and leadership towards more consultative and participative approaches, there is no single ideal, as the best approach may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics (CMI 2013).

Management and leadership two things that are very important to an organization yet while it is something that most would expect to work in tandem it rarely happens like that. However, for an organization to prosper and to enable the maximum productivity, innovation and creativity from its workers the two things must work together. Therefore, people who work in these organisations these look at more than a task, people now more information than ever before and are more educated than any previous era. Therefore, people look at managers to give them a purpose where they able to maximise the results as well as try to improve the skills of the workers to develop better results. This is echoed by Pete Drucker, management guru ““The task is to lead people. And the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of every individual.” Therefore, companies need leaders who are good managers as otherwise the company will struggle to establish its strategic vision, for instance, if it has a vision to be a sustainable company then workers will look to be led by the people above to follow the example which is the managers so they need to be able to act sustainably as well as making others follow the same thing as well.

 

I agree with most of the statement that has been provided as each person that comes under your control is completely different and has very different characteristics to all the other ones you have managed before. Therefore, while one approach may be applied to 5 people and be able to get the best out of them there is no guarantee that will work on the next branch of people who come under your control. An example is this would be Roy Hodgson as when he was the manager of Fulham he did great as he took less talented players and gave them organisation and discipline which acclimated them in going to the final of the Europa league the sister tournament of the champions League. However, he then became manager of Liverpool where he had to work with more talented players and these players already had the organisational skills and it was shown that he was unable to improve the team as his repertoire did not enhance these players and the players did not respect him either as they thought nothing he did was helping so he got sacked after 6 months with Liverpool 12th in the league a position of disgrace for them. Therefore I think all leadership and management techniques need to be adaptable and as the football example, showed that to succeed at a small club like Fulham requires many different attributes than a top class club like Liverpool as the levels of talent you are managing are different at each club and therefore it requires a different approach to manage these different levels of talents successfully.

  – Roy Hodgson

 

In terms of being led one of my examples is Reed Hasting CEO of Netflix the reason for that is the very different approach he takes to leadership in many ways it is the ultimate libertarian model of leadership in that he does not believe in micromanaging every detail of the employee. But instead he looks at more of an overview role and much more interested in the strategy of the company and instead lets the employee think and act for themselves when it comes to work. For instance, Netflix “doesn’t restrict the amount of work days “(Hastings, 2012) or “stock market options“(Hastings, 2012) and that their approach is about “freedom and responsibility” (Ltd., 2014) and to attract the most talent they view that “we’re unafraid to pay high” (Hastings, 2012). Another ethical leader that I am an admirer of is Tony Hsieh head of Zappos an online shoe retailer, which has been voted no 6 in fortune magazine top 100 best companies to work for (fortune, 2014). The CEO views that “your culture is your brand” as they believe that if they treat employee right the rest like “great customer service, or, building a great long-term brand, or passionate employees and customers — will happen naturally on its own ” (The Huffington Post, 2014) they are so confident in this motto that they offer employee after 2 weeks of training £2000 to quit if they view that the company is not the right fit for them.

l 2 2 l 2 3

Therefore,there is no right to approach leadership as everyone is different and that for some people might prefer the more authoritarian style or others might like the more consensual style. Furthermore, workers are now more educated and with the rise of the internet have more information and access to data than ever before therefore less likely to accept a much more dictator style of it. Therefore the most important attribute a leader needs, therefore is to be able to adapt to adapt to different workers, cultures, societal views and if he can do that than people more likely to be want to be led by him.

 

 

 

References

Fortune , (2014). Zappos.com ranked No. 6. [online] Available at: http://archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/bestcompanies/2011/snapshots/6.html [Accessed 26 Aug. 2014].

Giang, V. (2012). INSTANT MBA: It’s No Longer Beneficial To ‘Manage’ People. [online] Business Insider. Available at: http://www.businessinsider.com/instant-mba-its-no-longer-beneficial-to-manage-people-2012-1 [Accessed 26 Aug. 2014].

Hastings, R. (2012). How to Set Your Employees Free: Reed Hastings. [online] Businessweek.com. Available at: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-04-12/how-to-set-your-employees-free-reed-hastings [Accessed 26 Aug. 2014].

Ltd., W. (2014). Reed Hastings, Chairman/CEO, Netflix – World of CEOs. [online] Worldofceos.com. Available at: http://www.worldofceos.com/dossiers/reed-hastings [Accessed 26 Aug. 2014].

The Huffington Post, (2014). Zappos CEO: Your Culture Is Your Brand. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tony-hsieh/zappos-founder-tony-hsieh_1_b_783333.html [Accessed 26 Aug. 2014].

 

Advertisements

At this stage in your studies of business and leadership, what type of leader are you? And how ready are you to lead others?

My view of leadership is probably heavily warped from the sporting world until this module in and beginning my course ib business . After all growing up as a sport fanatic you always hear the word “ leadership ”. Therefore, my whole life I have been witnessing leadership with it’s mostly coming in a sporting sense, especially in football, where you could see the difference between a manager and a leader very explicitly a great example would be comparing Sven Goran Eriksson and Sir Alex Ferguson two people who were both managers yet one was a great leader and the other one was just an average manager but definetly not a leader after all he infamous for the famous quote “ we were expecting Winston Churchill and instead got Iain Duncan Smith” (ESPNFC, 2010).

 

Therefore, my vision of leadership would be simply summarised in a few words would be Control, Knowledge, Motivation and Communication, as I believe if you have all those four attributes then I can become a brilliant leader. The reason I believe control is important is like Sir Alex Ferguson “It’s not about looking for adversity or for opportunities to prove power; it’s about having control and being authoritative when issues do arise.” (Adams, 2014) As I believe than when you give others the chance to diminish you then that is when you stop being a leader. Knowledge is vital as how can you lead if you people who are following you, if they think you are clueless and therefore you need to be able to have all the information available before you try to make these people want to be led you. Motivation is probably the most and main attribute of a leader as it is impossible to lead employee unless they are motivated which could either be through money, job development, perks, etc., this is further cemented by Daniel Goleman CNN leadership expert “a variety of self-management whereby we mobilize our positive emotions to drive us toward our goals. Motivated leaders are driven to achieve beyond expectations – their own and everyone else’s.” (Goleman, 2014) While my final vision of a great leader is someone who can communicate as people are educated more than previous and have more information available therefore they want to have things explained to them as “It is simply impossible to become a great leader without being a great communicator”. (Myatt, 2012)

The person who has been the most effective leader ever is Sir Alex Ferguson. As after all how can this person a son of a shipbuilder from Glasgow end up managing a team containing people from Ecuador, Brazil, Portugal at the age of 70 to glory and then continual glory each year?

The reasons that I thought he was such an effective leader is that he was very adaptable he did not live in the past, but instead looked at in the future how to win “The goal was to evolve gradually, moving older players out and younger players in” (Adams, 2014). After all expert pundit Alan Hansen famously said “You do not win anything with kids “(BBC Match of The Day, 2014)

Yet Ferguson was the winner as he won the premier league title the same year. However a big attribute that as a business person you can take is that he was obsessed about winning and how that is the only thing that counts after all he said “I’ve never played for a draw in my life” (ShortList, 2013) which was proof when they won the champions league by getting a winner in the 90th minute . As the players believed like him that winning is everything and always possible.

Well, talking to my fellow student over the last couple weeks has given me a valuable lesson in how I can improve and become a better leader. People in my class have said that I am someone who is a very good communicator and am very good at explaining things clearly to them as well as coming up with good plans as well. However, I do not have that much knowledge or experience of the automotive industry so therefore if I want to lead in this industry need to improve that section.

In terms of leadership skills I need to develop one of them would be my communication as while I can write very well orally my written skills are often lacking and in many ways that is what prevented me academically from getting better grades an example is that many of my results are always on the border if I was able to better communicate I would of gotten better marks which would of meant I could of gone to a better university. Therefore, I need to work on my communication skills as well as that I am in a very multi-cultural university with people in my class from diverse nations such as China, Laos and Nigeria therefore it would be very useful if I was able to speak another language which will make me a better leader as I can communicate people in addition all languages apart from English.

 

 

References

Adams, S. (2014). Leadership Lessons From Manchester United’s Legendary Coach Alex Ferguson. [online] Forbes. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/2014/06/18/leadership-lessons-from-manchester-uniteds-legendary-coach/ [Accessed 8 Sep. 2014].

BBC Match of The Day, (2014). Alan Hansen- You can’t win anything with kids. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Es-RIBnba8 [Accessed 6 Sep. 2014].

ESPNFC.com, (2014). Sven-Goran Eriksson hits out at “stupid” Southgate. [online] Available at: http://www.espnfc.com/story/760781/sven-goran-eriksson-hits-out-atstupid-southgate [Accessed 8 Sep. 2014].

Goleman, D. (2014). Traits of a Motivated Leader. [online] Linkedin.com. Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20140413122716-117825785-traits-of-a-motivated-leader [Accessed 8 Sep. 2014].

Myatt, M. (2012). 10 Communication Secrets of Great Leaders. [online] Forbes. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/mikemyatt/2012/04/04/10-communication-secrets-of-great-leaders/ [Accessed 8 Sep. 2014].

ShortList, (2013). 50 Greatest Sir Alex Ferguson Quotes. [online] Available at: http://www.shortlist.com/entertainment/sport/50-greatest-sir-alex-ferguson-quotes [Accessed 3 Sep. 2014].

 

 

Ethical leadership, defining it as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-making”… [and] the evidence suggests that ethical leader behavior can have important positive effects on both individual and organizational effectiveness(Rubin et al 2010: 216-17).

Well, ethical leadership is a theory which sounds great in practice, but in reality what does it mean? As after all, the word ethic is very much a subjective word and a word that changes its definition according to each person as after all what is ethical changes to each person.

Well, there are 2 main principles of ethics which are Teleological and Deontological. Thus, in a theological view that the ethical organisation is grounded on the end of the activity, meaning that if you practise something that might be evil, however, as long as the end of the routine is serious then you have completed something which is believed to be a serious number. However a Deontological system judges on the actual act the person has committed whatever the goal of the act is which means that a Deontological system are primarily characterised by the moral rights. Therefore is about achieving the correct moral decisions compared to Teleological system where the decision is about the consequence that an action may have, therefore to make the right moral choice we have to look at the consequences behind out results this can be summarised like “When we make choices which result in the correct consequences, then we are acting morally; when we make choices which result in the incorrect consequences, then we are acting immoral.” (Atheism 2014)

A good example of ethical leadership would be Ford as they are in Ethisphere top 144 nominees for ethical leadership (Ethisphere 2014). As well as being only 1 of 3 companies in the automotive industry to be in the list as well, it has been in that position for 4 consecutive years. It recognised the Ethisphere award for its ‘innovation, transparency, communication and citizenship’ (Ford, 2014). In addition to that the institute director commented that that “Ford is not shirking its ethical commitments and emphasis on being a responsible corporate citizen. Instead, Ford remains morally strong and thoroughly communicates that to employees and the public” (Ford, 2014). Therefore, not only has ford treating its staff well and been very good to them it also been wary of the negative aspects of its industry, which was cars due to the environment, therefore the company has spent money on innovation products such as “”EcoBoost petrol engines” (Ford,2014)  which will lead to the car reducing fuel consumption which in turn reduces the amount of Co2 that it emits in addition to that it has Green manufacturing plants and has been ranked top in the “Best Global Green Band of 2014” (Edie, 2014 ). Therefore Ford has shown a commitment to its employee through its governments and the way it has treated them as well as being ethical to its customers by creating ways for the Cars to emit less Co2 and build them in more sustainable ways.

Satellite

However a bad example of ethical leadership in this industry would be General Motors the US giant making cars where they have recently been caught in the ignition switch furore which led to 107 deaths and 202 injuries and led to a recall of around 29 million GM vehicles this year which shows the depth of the problem as well as the company has to pay around $400 million in compensation for its victims. In a report it was shown that there was “a pattern of incompetence and neglect” ( GM, 2014 )as well as “The ignition-switch issue was touched by numerous parties at GM–engineers, investigators, lawyers–but nobody raised the problem to the highest levels of the company,”(GM,2014) . Therefore showing that there were plenty of senior people who had realised the fault of the company, but yet none of them tried to stop it before the damage. Therefore, clearly showing that GM had clearly no ethics when many people had worked out there was an issue with the ignition switch. This has also led to a US senator asking about the leadership as well “I do not understand how the general counsel for a litigation department that had this massive failure of responsibility, how he would be allowed to continue in that important leadership role in this company,” ( Yahoo, 2014 ). Therefore, it clearly shows the company had no interest in ethics, but instead were more focused on their own survival as well as the profit margins and were not interested at all in the social ramifications of what happens to the company.

GM_Ignition_Switch_Recall

In terms of consequences I believe that in the automotive industry ethics are quite important an example would be the GM ignition switch that has potentially two hundred dead because of it. Therefore, in the automotive industry you need to follow a deontology view where it is your duty to follow the correct moral rules and rights. As GM have not followed the duty of following the moral, but instead tried to take shortcuts, more interested in their selfish survival and this now led to deaths and the company paying hundreds of million in compensation. This depicts the utter collapse in ethics in the company and what a prime case of what takes place when a troupe has no more ethics, in improver to that they will now lose more clients to a company like Ford who have shown how you can move a massive international car giant but still preserve the moral philosophy.

Ethics and Morality FAQ: Teleology and Ethics. 2014. Ethics and Morality FAQ: Teleology and Ethics. [ONLINE] Available at: http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/phil/blfaq_phileth_teleo.htm. [Accessed 08 September 2014].

Ford ranked top global green brand for 2014 as carmakers race ahead. 2014. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.edie.net/news/6/Ford-ranked-top-global-green-brand-for-2014-as-car-makers-race-ahead/. [Accessed 08 September 2014

World’s Most Ethical Companies – Honorees | Ethisphere® Institute. 2014. World’s Most Ethical Companies – Honorees | Ethisphere® Institute. [ONLINE] Available at: http://ethisphere.com/worlds-most-ethical/wme-honorees/. [Accessed 08 September 2014].

Ford – Recognised as one of the top 100 most ethical companies. 2014.. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ford.co.uk/experience-ford/AboutFord/top-100-ethical-companies. [Accessed 08 September 2014].

 

GM CEO Mary Barra’s Remarks to Employees on Valukas Report Findings. 2014. GM CEO Mary Barra’s Remarks to Employees on Valukas Report Findings. [ONLINE] Available at: http://media.gm.com/media/us/en/gm/news.detail.html/content/Pages/news/us/en/2014/Jun/060514-mary-remarks.html. [Accessed 08 September 2014].

Senators to GM: Why wasn’t top lawyer fired? – Yahoo Finance. [ONLINE] Available at: http://finance.yahoo.com/news/gm-legal-department-comes-under-153843425.html. [Accessed 08 September 2014].

Change is nothing new and a simple fact of life. Some people actively thrive on new challenges and constant change, while others prefer the comfort of the status quo and strongly resist any change. It is all down to the personality of the individual and there is little management can do about resistance to change (Mullins 2010: 753).

When people think of “change” as a personal characteristic some people approach it with zest these people tend to be very ambitiously, visionary, and free-thinkers type of people however others view “change “ with indifference and annoyance these people usually are more realist, pragmatic, reactionary views therefore there will always be a contrast .

When a manager tries to make people change these people are now adults and adults as they get older are less adaptable and much more likely to be stuck in their own ways and methods, additionally these workers have probably worked in this company or sector for years and been successful, therefore resistance to it is normal. However I believe that viewpoint is wrong as a manager who is capable in the art of motivation and leadership should be able to make the employee more likely to want to change as a way of improvement. Especially if the change is viewed positively there will be less resistance. Therefore the change must be in the form of “managed change “where they can improve and eliminate mistakes of the employee to end up in the form of “natural change “(Inc.com, 2014).

The role a manager is to be able to minimise the problems of change in a company where the best method is usually education and communication. These are the keys ways to enable employees to follow your way. Employee can be reasoned to accept this change through logic and the rational argument as well to further your cause would be useful to use reports and presentations. In addition you can make the employee participate and implement the process of the change as well as making sure that the employees have the resources to complete the change as well as being available to help the employee through this process. They can also use incentives and rewards for the ones that help in the situation and if it all fails there is coercion which is an aggressive and negative tactic but useful when speed is vital.

Well in change management there are 3 widely heralded models to use the Lewins Change management model, McKinsey 7-S model and the Kotter 8 Step Change Model (Normandin, 2012) . I believe the best one to use would be the Kotter model as that model does not try to change the person character , instead it is about making employee accept the change as part of the working life and making them adapt to enhancing their skills to work in this new style . Therefore it is easier to use this model as it creates smaller steps which means eventually staff are prepared to use the “change “skill set. However its main criticism would be that it takes time for the company successfully use this model but yet it can make the change a permanent attribute of the employee without trying to change him psychologically which is much tougher thing to do.

L Blog 3 pic 1

 

Using the automotive industry you will see that change management has led to a more radical difference than the previous traditional ways. After all change management is the foundation in how organisation creation innovation which supports the stability of the organisation ( Roome , 1994 ) . The way that the automotive has changed recently especially in the rise of mega cities throughout the world now would be (Wyman, 2007).

  • Easy Switching between relaxation and driving position
  • Emphasises on passenger entertainment , GPS , information systems
  • Air con and smog protection
  • Close to zero emitting cars

Therefore with a growing customer demand for cars to have these features has led many different concepts by cars and now we have like the Nissan Leaf which is a full electric car or the Toyota Prius which is hybrid and has led to 3 million units of them being sold (Dailytech.com, 2014). Therefore Toyota and Nissan have looked at how to appeal to customer with changing taste and changed their cars to suit them and been successful through it.

 

L Blog 3 pic 2 L Blog 3 Pic 3

 

Therefore my view throughout has been that while changing is very hard as people are adults have their own opinions ideas yet there are many different techniques that a manager can use through persuasion , logic , reports , statistics but crucially customer feedback and seeing how the customers want their car to do it and be prepared to change if the customers want something radical than has been going on before which means the automotive industry is a great example as we now live in a society where customers are very conscience of the environment and therefore do not want gas guzzling cars as well customers live in cities where space is congested and therefore smaller hatchbacks are needed . This means now that there are more electric or hybrid cars and has led to successes like the Tesla car with sales of $769.3 million and now every car manufacturer has a hatchback .(Parkers, 2014)

 

 

 

 

References

Dailytech.com, (2014). DailyTech – Toyota’s Prius Hybrid Crosses 3 Million Unit Threshold in Worldwide Sales. [online] Available at: http://www.dailytech.com/Toyotas+Prius+Hybrid+Crosses+3+Million+Unit+Threshold+in+Worldwide+Sales/article31907.htm [Accessed 30 Aug. 2014].

Inc.com, (2014). Managing Organizational Change. [online] Available at: http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/managing-organizational-change.html [Accessed 30 Aug. 2014].

Normandin, B. (2012). Three Types of Change Management Models. [online] The Fast Track. Available at: http://quickbase.intuit.com/blog/2012/08/28/three-types-of-change-management-models/ [Accessed 30 Aug. 2014].

Parkers, (2014). [online] Parkers. Available at: http://www.parkers.co.uk/cars/reviews/facts-and-figures/type-hatchback/ [Accessed 30 Aug. 2014].

Slideshare.net, (2014). Change Management Automotive Industry Summary Presentation Summary V.…. [online] Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/KimRoss/change-management-automotive-industry-summary-presentation-summary-vfinal-dotx [Accessed 30 Aug. 2014].

Wyman, O. (2012). A comprehensive Study on innovation in the automative industry. Oliver Wyman Automative.

 

 

Managing Diverse Teams

Having a diverse team is now more important than ever with the change in social attitudes and the rise in globalisation. This has now led women having equal rights and equal pay to men as well as the perception has moved from them just being mothers and housewives but instead as people who can be the CEO of companies. While in Europe the free movement of people law since a Schengen 1990 agreement means that companies can now recruit people from Romania and Bulgaria as easily as recruiting someone from the UK in addition, there have many been global visa relaxation rules which allow individuals to move for business reasons. This has meant companies now more diverse with more minorities and with more women than ever before and therefore is up to managers to deal with these differing cultures, social view and political views with these companies.

 

Therefore, in many a great leader who is someone who is able to work with anybody no matter the skin colour or sexual orientation after all one of the greatest leaders ever Nelson Mandela worked with the same people in politics who put him in prison for 27 years. Therefore this view was supported by (Maytree 2007) “Leaders develop the vision of society and institutions which guide us; Leaders have the power to make decisions which affect a significant number of people: An inclusive society where everyone has the opportunity to lead”. This means that a leader tends to have lots of power and is able to shape how society acts and therefore for someone to be a great leader they need to be able to include everyone.

 

Now being diverse not just because you have to do as otherwise you would face bad media headlines or you just do it as a token gesture instead there is proof that being diverse provides increased growth and earnings for the company. . This view is not necessarily just my own singular view, but shared by Forbes magazine who viewed “Diversity is essential to the growth and prosperity of any company: diversity of perspectives, experiences, cultures, genders, and age. Why? Because diversity breeds innovation. And innovation breeds business success” ( Toronto diverse 2014) . Therefore the strength of diversity is not that it looks good in the company brochure or is a good way to show off the company brand, but instead it is vital for the most important thing in a business. Making more profit!!! This is something a great manager will be to recognise and should act upon especially as there is now major evidence to support the claims such as the Mckinsey model which shows how a diverse model leads to a higher ROCE

L pic 1 

As well as there is this chart by Forbes which shows that over 85 % believe that diversity workplace will help drive more innovation for the company

L Pic 2

In addition to that top companies in America with over £10 billion in revenue around 56 % agree diversity is crucial to creating innovation and through innovation can stay at the top of the competition this further complimented by a director at Intel commenting “Because of our diverse workforce, we’ve experienced a boost in productivity. When you can move people to contribute to their fullest, it has a tremendous impact,”(Forbes , 2013 )

In addition to that top companies in America with over £10 billion in revenue around 56 % agree diversity is crucial to creating innovation and through innovation can stay at the top of the competition this further complimented by a director at Intel commenting “Because of our diverse workforce, we’ve experienced a boost in productivity. When you can move people to contribute to their fullest, it has a tremendous impact,” (ISS, 2014)

Therefore if a manager does not use diversity to produce better results than in many ways it is a stupid and failing manager when all the evidence points to the contrary, when major American companies believe that through diversity you can create better innovation and that through diversity you are able to create more returns your investment than a manager has to use the evidence. Methods to help achieve more diversity would be through following Adidas example, which has used targets to increase women on board or gender-balanced recruiting and child care assistance which are vital ways of getting more women to work for you. While this Forbes diagram shows the method company use to help with the assistance of diversity.

L pic 3

Banking Industry Sector

An area where diversity is probably one of the most important skills and greatly appreciated and needed is the banking sector as banks are very international therefore they need to do, they make decisions which affect different countries, different cultures and different beliefs therefore if they are all white male American they will be unable to fully understand all of that. This has been commented on by Credit Suisse “Having a diverse workforce is very important to our strategy. It allows us to capture new clients and address the needs of our existing businesses” ( Edge 2013) in addition to Deutsche Bank “Diverse teams and companies make better decisions and in the aftermath of the financial crisis, diversity is even more of a priority,” ( Forbes, 2013) Therefore banking which is now a far more complicated and highly competitive business than before needs to use diversity to follow the evidence that leads to innovation and through that they get their competitive advantage. Therefore, it is vital that the managers of the company recognise the potential value of having these diverse and therefore is able to manage them accordingly, even though they may have different social or political views that the consensus of the workplace. As well as that if companies are not diverse, then they are failing to represent modern society, especially in countries such as the USA and western Europe which are now full of people of different races and ethnicity and have moved on from just the traditional homogeneous races that they traditionally were associated with the country . So if companies are not diverse they end up missing out on a massive talent pool which severely restricts their ability to stay atop of the competition and be able to beat them.

 

Referencing 

Benefits of Diverse Leadership – DiverseCity Toronto. 2014. Benefits of Diverse Leadership – DiverseCity Toronto. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.diversecitytoronto.ca/research-and-tools/business-case/benefits/. [Accessed 08 September 2014].

 Edge, America , 2005. Strengthenig American Businesses and our Economy Through Racial Equity. Americas Edge, [Online]. 1, 1- 8 . Available at: http://www.americasedge.amazonaws.com [Accessed 15 September 2014].

Forbes, 2013. Fostering Innovation Through a Diverse Workface. Global Diversity and Inclusion, [Online]. 1, 1-20. Available at: http://images.forbes.com/forbesinsights/StudyPDFs/Innovation_Through_Diversity.pdf. [Accessed 04 September 2014].

 Independent School Services. 2014. Independent School Services. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.dimensionsedc.com/resources.html. [Accessed 08 September 2014].

 Reaping The Benefits Of Diversity For Modern Business Innovation – Forbes. 2014. Reaping The Benefits Of Diversity For Modern Business Innovation – Forbes. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/ekaterinawalter/2014/01/14/reaping-the-benefits-of-diversity-for-modern-business-innovation/. [Accessed 08 September 2014].